Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is an important public health issue. Traumatic brain injury is a contributing factor to a third of all injury-related deaths in the United States. Each year, an estimated 1.7 million people sustain a brain injury. About 75% of these brain injuries are in the form of concussions or other forms of mild TBI.
Children from newborn to 4 years old, adolescents aged 15 to 19 and adults aged 65 and older are more likely to sustain traumatic brain injury. In every age group, TBI is higher for males than females.
The potential effects of traumatic brain injury include the following:
- Thinking (memory and reasoning)
- Sensation (touch, taste and smell)
- Language (communication, expression and understanding)
- Emotion (depression, anxiety, personality changes, aggression, acting out and social inappropriateness)
TBI can also increase the risks of epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and other brain disorders that become more prevalent with age.